Video 45.1 Landmarks to guide subxiphoid puncture: coronary sinus catheter.
Video 45.2 Landmarks to guide subxiphoid puncture: right ventricle apex catheter.
Video 45.3 Manually exploring the epigastric area.
Video 45.4 Local anesthesia with lidocaine is performed with a small needle, in order to look for a space to introduce the Tuohy needle and additionally to exclude liver enlargement.
Video 45.5 Small incision on the skin, in order to reduce the resistance when introducing the Tuohy needle.
Video 45.6 Tuohy needle on subxiphoid approach is advanced until the needle passes pericardium.
Video 45.7 Guidewire is used to confirm intrapericardial position of the needle by demonstrating (LAO) it at the left border of the cardiac silhouette.
Video 45.8 Sheath introduced over the guidewire followed by aspiration of the content to evaluate if there was any accident on the puncture.
Video 45.9 Small amount of contrast through the sheath to confirm how long is the sheath introduced in the pericardial space.
Video 45.10 Mapping and ablating catheter introduced in the pericardial space.
Video 45.11 Movements of the catheter through several positions on the epicardial space.
Video 45.12 At the end of the procedure, pericardial space is aspirated again using a pigtail catheter to check for pericardial bleeding, and if none is found, the catheter and sheaths are removed.
Video 48.1 Fluoroscopy of the epidural needle tenting the pericardium and puncture.
Video 48.2 Fluoroscopy of wire advancing into pericardial space.
Video 48.3 Fluoroscopy of sheath introduction into epicardial space.
Video 48.4 Fluoroscopy of navigation of the ablation catheter within the left ventricle with the Stereotaxis system.
Video 48.5 Electroanatomic map generation using a Navistar RMT with the Stereotaxis system.
Video 48.6 Catheter navigation within the pericardial space (fluoroscopy).
Video 48.7 Video of combined right ventricular, left ventricular, and epicardial maps with ablation points.
Video 48.8 Video of recording system signals and VT termination during ablation.
Video 48.9 ICE video showing no significant residual effusion.
Video 50.1 Dynamic MRI showing severe pulmonary valve regurgitation and RVOT enlargement in a patient late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot including a transannular patch. (Courtesy H.M. Siebelink, LUMC, Leiden, the Netherlands.)
Video 50.2 Dynamic MRI showing severe subpulmonary obstruction due to hypertrophy of the septoparietal trabeculations that encircle the subpulmonary infundibulum. (Courtesy H.M. Siebelink, LUMC, Leiden, the Netherlands.)
Video 50.3 3D electroanatomical voltage map of a patient who presented with VT late after repair consistent of a transannular patch, resection of infundibular muscle, and patch closure of a muscular ventricular septal defect. Three anatomical isthmuses could be identified.
Video 50.4 Electroanatomical propagation map obtained during RVA pacing. Activation wavefronts are reaching the 3 isthmuses from different directions at a similar time.
Video 52.1 Percutaneous epicardial access to perform epicardial mapping/ablation in the setting of ARVC/D. An epidural needle is advanced to the pericardial space under fluoroscopic guidance, using a tetrapolar catheter located at the RV apex as a reference. Contrast injection will confirm access to the pericardial space, and a guidewire is then advanced to this space.
Video 55.2 Simulated example of a endocardial pace mapping map with a centrifugal depolarization pattern (focal VT or endocardial breakthrough of an intra-mural/ epicardial VT circuit).
Video 55.3 Simulated example of a endocardial pace mapping map in a case of an endocardial reentrant VT circuit.
Video 57.1 Implantation of Impella CP pLVAD.
Video 57.2 Electromagnetic interference with Impella CP pLVAD causing location and force sensing inaccuracy.
Video 58.1 Overview of the implant procedure. (Image reproduced with permission from Boston Scientific Corp.)
Video 58.2 Engagement of the LAA with pigtail catheter and Watchman access sheath. Cineangiography in the RAO 30° view demonstrating engagement of the anterior lobe of the appendage. This site is preferred for device landing compared to the faintly visualized posterior lobe.
Video 58.3 Device deployment. The outer Watchman access sheath is pulled back to snap into the delivery catheter. With one's fingertips holding gentle forward tension on the deployment knob, connected to the Watchman device itself, the delivery catheter is pulled back to unsheath the device. There should be no forward sheath motion during this process.
Video 58.4 Partial recapture and redeployment. See text for description.